The Buddha (BC 623-BC 543) Researched by- Myoma Myint Kywe ၿမိဳ ႔မ ျမင့္ၾကြယ္

The Buddha (BC 623-BC 543)

Researched by- Myoma Myint Kywe
ၿမိဳ ႔မ ျမင့္ၾကြယ္

The Lord Buddha was the founder of Buddhism, began his life as a prince in NEPAL. The word "Buddha" can be defined as "the Enlightened One", or "the Awakened One".
The Lord Buddha was born in 623 B.C. in a country called Kapilavatthu in Nepal. Born in the noble Sakya clan, he was named Siddhattha Gotama.

He was born at Lumbini Park on the full moon of the sixth lunar month. Deities from all heavenly realms came to welcome him and pay reverence. Even eminent gods like Brahma and Indra were there to express their joy at his birth. Heavenly music filled the air and two showers, one hot and one cold, came down from the sky to bathe the child. The earth trembled and the heavenly beings gave out loud acclaims of joy.
It is also said that, immediately after his birth, the infant stood firmly on the ground and took seven strides to the north, surrounded by gods and men. A white canopy was held over his head. Having walked the seven steps, he stopped to look around and gave out a fearless utterance known as the 'lion's roar' (sihanada). 

His proclamation may be translated as follows:
"Supreme am I in the world;
Greatest am I in the world;
Noblest am I in the world.
This is my last birth,
Never shall I be reborn."

It is possible that the miracles accompanying the Buddha's birth described in the early commentaries may point to something deeper and more meaningful.
As a prince of the country, he did not have to face the unsatisfactoriness and sufferings encountered by the common folks. He married his cousin Princess Yasodhara, who bore him a son by the name of Rahula. Life was good and without worries.

However, things changed after Prince Siddhattha took a private visit out of the palace and saw the four sights of Sickness, Old Age, Death and a holy man. That prompted him to renounce his comfortable life to seek out the truth in order to end the sufferings of common people. At the age of 29, B.C 594, he left his palace quietly in search of the truth. He had studied under ascetic teachers, and tried various methods of self-mortification, but to no avail. He learnt later that extremes (of indulgence versus torture) are not going to work out. After searching for 6 years, for 6 year Gautama strived as a hermit, at the age of 35, B.C 588, one day, he sought shelter under a tree, and through intense meditation that he finally attained Enlightenment, and sees things as they really are. Henceforth, he is known as the Lord Buddha. The tree under which the Buddha gained Enlightenment has since been known as the Bodhi Tree. The Lord Gautama Buddha gained a flash of insight that he felt gave him an answer to the problem of suffering. He began to share with other the meaning of His enlightenment since B.C 588.

The Lord Buddha and his disciples travelled vast areas (on foot) throughout India to expound the Dhamma, helping lots of suffering people along the way. His relentless effort lasted for 45 years. The Buddha spent 45 years the four Noble Truth and the Noble Eightfold Path. The Buddha passed into Parinibbana (or passed away in simplified layman's term) at the ripe old age of 80 B.C 543. When Buddha died, his physical death is defined as Parinibbana.

Known as the Buddha or Enlightened One, Gautama Buddha taught that people can escape the circle of rebirth by eliminating desire and by following rules of behaviour, the Eightfold Path. Since Lord Buddha's death, B.C 543, Buddhism has become one of the world's great religions.

One of the teachings of Lord Buddha about KALAMA SUTTA
The Buddha proceeds to list the criteria by which any sensible person can decide which teachings to accept as true. Do not believe religious teachings, he tells the Kalamas, just because they are claimed to be true, or even through the application of various methods or techniques. Direct knowledge grounded in one's own experience can be called upon. He advises that the words of the wise should be heeded and taken into account. Not, in other words, passive acceptance but, rather, constant questioning and personal testing to identify those truths which you are able to demonstrate to yourself actually reduce your own stress or misery:
·        Do not go upon what has been acquired by repeated hearing,
·        nor upon tradition,
·        nor upon rumor,
·        nor upon what is in a scripture,
·        nor upon surmise,
·        nor upon an axiom,
·        nor upon specious reasoning,
·        nor upon a bias towards a notion that has been pondered over,
·        nor upon another's seeming ability,
·        nor upon the consideration, "The monk is our teacher."

Kalamas, when you yourselves know: "These things are good; these things are not blamable; these things are praised by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to benefit and happiness," enter on and abide in them.
Thus, the Buddha provides ten specific sources which should not be used to accept a specific teaching as true, without further verification:
  •      Oral history
  •      Traditional
  •      News sources
  •      Scriptures or other official texts
  •      Suppositional reasoning
  •      Philosophical reasoning
  •      Common sense
  •      One's own opinions
  •      Authorities or experts
  •      One's own teacher

Instead, the Buddha says, only when one personally knows that a certain teaching is skillful, blameless, praiseworthy, and conducive to happiness, and that it is praised by the wise, should one then accept it as true and practice it. Thus, as stated by Bhikkhu Bodhi, neither was this teaching intended as an endorsement of radical skepticism:
On the basis of a single passage, quoted out of context, the Buddha has been made out to be a pragmatic empiricist who dismisses all doctrine and faith, and whose Dhamma is simply a freethinker's kit to truth which invites each one to accept and reject whatever he likes. ”

However, it seems not all Buddhists agree. According to Ven. Soma Thera, the Kalama Sutta is just that; the Buddha's charter of free inquiry:
“ The instruction of the Kalamas (Kalama Sutta) is justly famous for its encouragement of free inquiry; the spirit of the sutta signifies a teaching that is exempt from fanaticism, bigotry, dogmatism, and intolerance.
The first and main part of the Kalama Sutta is often quoted, but an equally important section of the Kalama Sutta follows on from this.  Vaguely reminiscent of Pascal's Wager, the Buddha says that whether or not there are consequences to one's actions or not (kamma), whether there is an afterlife or not (rebirth), a happy, morally correct life in the here and now is what is most important and is assurance in itself:
     "The disciple of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who has such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, is one by whom four solaces are found here and now."
     "Suppose there is a hereafter and there is a fruit, result, of deeds done well or ill. Then it is possible that at the dissolution of the body after death, I shall arise in the heavenly world, which is possessed of the state of bliss." This is the first solace found by him.
     "Suppose there is no hereafter and there is no fruit, no result, of deeds done well or ill. Yet in this world, here and now, free from hatred, free from malice, safe and sound, and happy, I keep myself." This is the second solace found by him.
     "Suppose evil (results) befall an evil-doer. I, however, think of doing evil to no one. Then, how can ill (results) affect me who do no evil deed?" This is the third solace found by him.
     "Suppose evil (results) do not befall an evil-doer. Then I see myself purified in any case". This is the fourth solace found by him.
     "The disciple of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who has such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, is one by whom, here and now, these four solaces are found."
- (Kalama Sutta, translated by Soma Thera)
On these four solaces, Ven. Soma Thera wrote:
“ The Kalama Sutta, which sets forth the principles that should be followed by a seeker of truth, and which contains a standard things are judged by, belongs to a framework of the Dhamma; the four solaces taught in the sutta point out the extent to which the Buddha permits suspense of judgment in matters beyond normal cognition. The solaces show that the reason for a virtuous life does not necessarily depend on belief in rebirth or retribution, but on mental well-being acquired through the overcoming of greed, hate, and delusion.
The story of his last days of life is reported in the texts of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, with touching particulars.
At the age of 80 years (BC 543), Buddha realized that his death was coming, after having spent the last 45 years of his life preaching his doctrine.

Basic words for a Buddhist

Buddham saranam gacchami.    ( I go to the Buddha for refuge.)
Dhammam saranam gacchami.  ( I go to the Dhamma (teachings of Buddha) for refuge.
Sangham saranam gacchami.   
( I go to the Sangha (Monks) for refuge.)

The Nine Qualities of Lord Buddha
1. araham,
2. samma-sambuddho,
3. vijjacarana-sampanno,
4. sugato,
5. lokavidu,
6. anuttaro-purisa-dhammasarathi,
7. sattha-deva-manussanam,
8. buddho and
9. bhagava.
The qualities of the Buddha are infinite and all those infinite qualities are included in these nine.

Araham means that the Buddha had eradicated all the defilements. Defilement in plain language means bad thoughts, bad reactions like anger, anxiety, hatred, frustration, stress, depression, ignorance, jealousy, gossip, attachment, dogmatism and so on; the Buddha had got rid of all these. The Buddha inspires us with His qualities. Because He had got rid of all defilement, He is Araham. While repeating the word Araham, you go on reflecting at the same time comparing the quality. The rosary is only an instrument to help you concentrate. The word Arahant and Arahat come from the same etymological background and have the same meaning with Araham.

This means to discover and understand fully, the Four Noble Truths , without any aid from a teacher. The Four Noble Truths that we have read about, heard about, thought about — we still have difficulty in understanding them fully.

Vijja-Carana-Sampano is knowledge and conduct, or theory and practice; the Buddha is endowed with both. He says as He acts and He does what He says. When you see things like this, you realize how great is the quality of Vijja-Carana-Sampano the Buddha posses, and how valuable are all His qualities. Some people know the theory but do not practice it.

Sugato is a great speaker, who is adept in the art of choosing the right words, saying them at the right time, and in such a way as will benefit the listener. The Buddha was a master of that. Another meaning of Sugato is that the Buddha walks the best path to reach His goal — the path leading to freedom from suffering (dukkha). When He meditates and a pain arises, He observes the pain without increasing dukkha, whereas the majority of people personalize pain or suffering and misperceives it through attachment and pride (mana). The Buddha avoided this path of misconstruing things and followed the right path. He had chosen to deal with things in the right way that freed Him from suffering. The Buddha, being a Sugata, walked the path of freedom and freed Himself from mental suffering.

Lokavidu is the person who knows about the world. What do we mean by Loka? As There are six worlds; the seeing world, the hearing world, the smelling world, the tasting world, the touching world and the thinking world. There are no other worlds than these six. The Buddha understands how they arise and cease. He knows how clashes and harmony happen in this world. He knows why people can be trapped in them or be free from them. That is why He is called Lokavidu. You are in harmony with the world only when you know about it and live accordingly accepting as it is.

Anuttaro Purisa Dhamma-Sarathi means that the Buddha is the best teacher who can bring the wayward back into the fold. The Buddha can make people understand with either just one sentence or a whole series of talks, like the time He gave His first sermon to the five ascetics, which took five whole days. We should reflect on this quality of the Buddha whenever we experience problems in teaching or explaining things to children. How capable the Buddha is in these things!

Satta Deva-Manussanam — the teacher and leader of devas and men. Let alone knowing more than the Buddha or even knowing as much as the Buddha did, we struggle to understand even a tiny bit of what He has said in His sermons and this is in spite of having many learned monks teaching us. He was the Satta Deva Manussanam. There were many that became the Buddha's followers. Even after He passed away, there are many like us who regard the Buddha as their teacher and leader.

Buddho is the person who knows the Four Noble Truths . This is similar to Samma Sambuddho, which emphasizes the fact that the Buddha discovered the Four Noble Truths by Himself. Buddho just emphasizes the fact that he knows it well. He was the Awakened One, who had awakened from ignorance and delusion.

Bhagava is the person endowed with special powers . The merits the Buddha had accumulated are much more than others and this is also why He was called Bhagava. The merits are acts of sharing, ethical morality, patience, renunciation, wisdom, diligence, truthfulness, determination, loving –kindness and equanimity. He perfected these to the most difficult and advanced level. He shared not only material things in His past lives but also His limbs and life.
The nine Qualities of Lord Buddha

There are 9 qualites ascribed to the Buddha. These qualities are desribed by Pali words. This document is a translation of the traditional Pali.

The 9 Qualities of the Buddha:

1. Araham: Exalted; Accomplished One
Far away from internal conflict
Destroyer of defilements
Worthy of requisites
Devoid of secrets and evil doing

2. Samma sambuddho: Perfectly Self Enlightened
Knows all things by himself

3. Vijja-Carana Sampanno: Endowed with Knowledge and Virtue
Vijja: Knowledge
Carana: Virtue
Sampanno: Endowed

4. Sugato: Well Spoken;
Speaking Good & Beneficial things.
i. Good & Benificial: This is the way the Buddha Spoke
ii. ~ Good & Beneficial
iii. Good & ~ Beneficial
iv. ~ Good & ~ Beneficial
Some may like the message some may dislike the message

5. Lokavidu: Knower of the Worlds
Knower of the 3 Kinds of Worlds
i. Space
ii. Beings
iii. The relationship between Space and Beings

6. Anuttaro Purisadammasarathi: Supreme trainer of persons to be tamed
Anuttaro: supreme or peerless
Purisa: persons
Damma: tamed
Sarathi: trainer

7. Sattha devamanussanam: Teacher of Gods and Humans
The Buddha was able to teach Gods and Men, and he made time in each day to teach.
Sattha: teacher
Deva: divine beings
Manussanam: Men / People

8. Buddho: The Enlightened One
Discovered the 4 Noble Truths
i. The truth of suffering
ii. The truth of the cause of suffering
iii. The truth of the cessation of suffering
iv. The truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering

9. Bhagava: Blesses One
Having the characteristic of magnetic attraction.
When you meet him, you want to go back to see him.
When you hear him speak, you want to back to hear him speak again.

Buddhist Five Main Precepts (PANCA SILA)
The Five Precepts (Pali: pañca-sīlāni; Sanskrit: pañca-śīlāni) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers (Upāsaka and Upāsikā) of the Buddha Gautama in the Theravada (practised mainly Burma, Thailand, Lao, Cambodia, southeast Asia, etc and India, Sri Lanka south Asia, etc) and Mahayana (practised in China, Korea, and Japan) traditions. The Five Precepts are commitments to abstain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication. Undertaking the five precepts is part of both lay Buddhist initiation and regular lay Buddhist devotional practices.
They are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that laypeople undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice.

The following are the five precepts (pañca-sikkhāpada) or five virtues (pañca-sīla) rendered in English and Pali:
Panati-pata veramani sikkha padam samadiyami
Adinna-dana veramani sikkhi padam samadiyami
Kamesu miccha~cara veramani sikkha padam samadiyami
Musavada veramani sikkha padam samadiyami
Sura meraya-maija-pama~datthana veramani sikkha padam samadiyami

1. Refrain From Killing
2. Refrain from Stealing
3. Refrain from Sexual Misconduct
4. Refrain from Lying, Slandering, Gossiping and Spreading Rumours
5. Refrain from Taking Intoxicants

The law of cause and effect is known as karma. Nothing ever happens to us unless we deserves it. We receive exactly what we earn, whether it is good or bad. We are the way we are now due to the things we have done in the past. Our thoughts and actions determine the kind of life we can have. If we do good things, in the future good things will happen to us. If we do bad things, in the future bad things will happen to us. Every moment we create new karma by what we say, do, and think. If we understand this, we do not need to fear karma. It becomes our friend. It teaches us to create a bright future.

The Buddha said:
"The kind of seed sown
  will produce that kind of fruit.
  Those who do good will reap good results.
  Those who do evil will reap evil results.
  If you carefully plant a good seed,
  You will joyfully gather good fruit.

That's from Dhammapada.
Noble Truth

1: Suffering
Known as Dukkha in Pali, the 1st noble truth can be translated to mean suffering, or (in a seemingly less pessimistic sense) unsatisfactoriness. To say that we encounter suffering every now and then may not be obvious; but then Dukkha encompasses more: unfulfilled wish is also suffering, coming into contact (and being forced to spend long hours) with people we do not like is Dukkha, separated from people we love is Dukkha. Drilling down further, we may come to realize that we do at least now and then come into contact with suffering. Some people could take Dukkha too hard to bear that they resort to ending their lives.

2: Cause of Suffering
The cause of all the suffering is craving, or attachment. This is the 2nd noble truth.

3: End of Suffering
The 3rd noble truth is the complete end of suffering - Nibbana. This can be achieved when all forms of craving are eradicated.

4: Way Leading to the End of Suffering
How to reach the end of suffering? This could be explained by the 4th noble truth - The Noble Eightfold Path.

The Noble 8-fold Path

The Buddha urged His disciples to do eight things: By avoiding extremes and following the eightfold path, a person could attain Nibbana (Nirvana), a state of freedom from the circle of rebirth.

1. Right Understanding
The understanding of things as they really are; the knowledge of the 4 Noble Truths.

2. Right Thought
Includes benevolent and loving-kindness thoughts, which are the opposites of ill-will and cruelty respectively.

3. Right Speech
Not lying, slandering, using harsh words and engaging in frivolous talks (including meaningless gossiping).

4. Right Action
Refraining from killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct.

5. Right Livelihood
Not having occupation that trades in arms, human beings, life stocks, intoxicating drinks, and poisons.

6. Right Effort
Effort made to eradicate/reduce evil-doings and effort made to promote/enhance good deeds.

7. Right Mindfulness
Being mindful (as opposed to heedlessness/carelessness) of body, mind, etc.

8. Right Concentration
One-pointedness of the mind (as can be seen and achieved in meditation).
Kamma (Karma)

Kamma (Karma) could simply be defined as action. However, it is not any kind of action, but intentional action, including physical action, speech, or thought. So, an intentional evil thought constitutes a Kamma - an unwholesome one.
Kamma (action) is always discussed in conjunction with Vipaka (fruits, or the reaction). To a farmer, it is reaping what seed that is sowed. To a scientist, an analogy would be cause and effect (e.g. Newton's Law). To sum up, bad Kamma begets bad Vipaka, and good Kamma reaps good results. Thus, Kamma explains many of the inequalities experienced by mankind - why some are born handicapped, etc.

Having mentioned the above, Buddhists believe that Kamma is not a pre-destination for oneself and nothing could be done. Having suffered this life, a person could actively perform more good deeds such that not only others would benefit from the good deeds, but good Kamma could be accumulated, no matter when in the future the good results are reaped-Cannot just sit around and let things to fate; must make constant effort to change for the better for oneself and other sentient beings!
Understanding Kamma is only the first step. One must encourage wholesome Kamma and avoid (if not eliminate) unwholesome Kamma.
At the end of the day, as mentioned in the Dhammapada (verse 165):

By oneself is evil done,
By oneself is one defiled,
By oneself is no evil done,
By oneself is one purified.
Both defilement and purity depend on oneself.
No one is purified by another.

The Sangha

The organization of the Buddha's disciples had come to be known as the Sangha. The Sangha refers to the followship of disciples of the Buddha. Generally, it includes the Buddhist monks and nuns, who had made their commitments to lead a monastic way of life, and to carry on and preserve the teachings and tradition left behind by the Buddha. On a wider scope, Sangha includes the lay disciples.

The Metta

Metta is a Pali word for loving-kindness (Sanskrit = Maitri). Metta is essential for everyone. Put simply, loving-kindness means wishing all beings be well and happy, and that harm and suffering be away from them. It is a wish, a prayer, and a state of mind. For a Buddhist practising loving-kindness, it is supposed to be universal --> you cannot be wishing your loved ones well and on the other hand wishing your competitors/enemies to go to hell! Some Buddhists practise meditation on loving-kindness.

According to the Buddha, a person who practises meditation on loving-kindness regularly could see some results, e.g. sleeps peacefully, disturbing dreams do not occur, pleasing to others, etc.
We can start practising loving-kindness too. Some Buddhists recite (verbally or mentally) the following:

May I be free from enmity, disease and grief and may I guard myself happily; As I am, so also may my teachers, parents, intimate, indifferent, and inimical beings be free from enmity, disease and grief, and may they guard themselves happily;

May all beings be void of enmity, disease and grief, and may they take care of themselves happily; May I be free from envy, may I be free from jealousy. May I be free from malice; may my beloved parents be well and happy; may my loving brothers and sisters be well and happy; may my kind teachers be well and happy; may my dear friends and relatives be well and happy; may my dutiful servants be well and happy; may all the non-friendly be well and happy.

Practice of vipassana

Vipassana meditation differs in the modern Buddhist traditions and in some nonsectarian forms. It includes any meditation technique that cultivates insight including contemplation, introspection, observation of bodily sensations, analytic meditation, and observations about lived experience. Therefore, the term can include a wide variety of meditation techniques across lineages.

In the Theravada

Vipassanā as practiced in the Theravāda includes contemplating Buddhist teachings, including the Four Noble Truths, as well as more experiential forms such as deep body awareness. In the latter forms it is a simple technique which depends on direct experience and observation. It can be related to the three trainings taught by the Buddha as the basis of a spiritual path: adherence to a sīla (Sanskrit: śīla) (abstinence from killing, stealing, lying, sexual misconduct and intoxication), which is not an end in itself but a requirement for the second part, concentration of the mind (samādhi). With this concentrated mind, the third training, in the context of this technique (paññā, Sanskrit prajñā), is detached observation of the reality of the mind and body from moment to moment.

Who is a Bodhisatta (or Bodhisattva in Sanskrit)?
The components of the term explains. Bodhi refers to "enlightenment" and Satta means "devoted to". As such, this term can generally be used to refer to someone who is striving for enlightenment. In a focused sense, a Bodhisatta is someone who will eventually become a Buddha.

A Bodhisatta in the course of helping others, practices the Perfections:-
  • Generosity
  • Morality
  • Renunciation
  • Wisdom
  • Energy
  • Patience
  • Truthfulness
  • Determination
  • Loving-kindness
  • Equanimity

What is the purpose of Buddhists in worshipping and making Buddha images?

Buddhists cast Buddha images and statues as reminders of the Buddha. People of various countries designed national flags to represent each of their own countries which are held as important, worth of respect. Such practice does not imply paying a respect to the cloth or its colour but to the highest national institution. In the same manner, Buddha images and statues also are objects of respect.
Our respect does not aim only at wood or metal which Buddha images are made of but mainly at the 3 qualities of the Buddha, namely: wisdom, purity, and compassion. A Buddhist paying respect to a Buddha image is away of reminding oneself that one needs to improve one's own wisdom, purity, and compassion in order to follow the Buddha's triple quality at the same time.

What are the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha?

To be a Buddhist, one is expected primarily to take refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. Buddha means the Enlightened One. Dhamma means Truth realised and taught by the Buddha. Sangha means the Buddha's disciples who behave and practise righteously. The ideal Sangha means those who attain the Four States of Noblehood.

The meaning of the Triple Gem or the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha may be understood in three different levels as follows:

(1)The First Level
The Buddha : the Enlightened One represented by His replica or Buddha image.
The Dhamma : Truth realised and taught by the Buddha, represented by Tripitaka or the Buddhist scripture.
The Sangha : the Buddha's noble disciples represented by Buddhist bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) in general, who have not yet attained the Four States of Noblehood. The Sangha in this level is called Conventional
Sangha or Sammati Sangha.

(2) The Second Level
The Buddha : The Enlightened One, who was formerly Prince Siddhattha of the Sakya clan. He renounced the worldly life in search of Truth and after His Enlightenment established Buddhism.
Dhamma : Truth realised and taught by the Buddha, learned and put into practice by the Buddhists, both ordained and lay people.
Sangha : the Buddha's noble disciples who have attained the Four States of Noblehood.

(3) The Third Level
The Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha become one. The Buddha in this level is identical with Dhamma as it was stated by Him that "One who sees Dhamma sees me; one who seems me sees Dhamma." This shows that Buddhahood is Dhamma and Dhamma is Buddhahood. The ideal Sangha is the embodiment of the realised Dhamma.

Is it true that Buddhism is pessimistic?

The belief that Buddhism is pessimistic derives from the misunderstanding of the First Noble Truth which teaches that all sentient beings are subject to the suffering of birth, old age and death, etc. Only when one accepts the truth of this suffering will one begin to investigate the cause of suffering, the cessation of its cause and practice the path leading to its cessation.

In this sense we will see that Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic; it is rather realistic. The Buddha may be compared to a medical doctor who diagnoses that human beings do have a severe disease, but he did not stop there. He pointed out that it can be overcome and further prescribed medicine to remedy it. Buddhism seeks to overcome human suffering. Each individual needs to develop morality, concentration, and wisdom in order to solve the problems of life. Buddhists are taught to face the world in its reality and try to overcome its binding forces and ultimately arrive at spiritual freedom which is known as Nirvana or Nibbana. But how wonderful it will be for all those who have arrived in Nirvana or Nibbana, they will be no more sickness, suffering, crying and death. So please study correctly in Vipassana Meditation before it is forever too late.

What are the main doctrinal tenets of Buddhism?

The main doctrinal tenets of Buddhism can be summarised as follows:

(1) To refrain from all evil
(2)To do what is good
(3)To purify the mind
(2)The cause of suffering
(3)The cessation of suffering
(4)The way leading to the cessation of suffering

Buddhism in Burma (also known as Myanmar) is predominantly of the Theravada tradition, practised by 89% of the country's population. It is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion.

Today, most Buddhists are birth certificate Buddhists. There are estimated 1.6 billion of these kinds of  Buddhists (Mahayana + Theravada). The estimates range between 1500 million and just over 1600 million.

The number of Buddhists around the world is grossly underestimated. The statistics found in nearly all encyclopedias and almanacs place the number of Buddhists at approximately 500 million. This figure completely ignores over one billion (1,100 million) Chinese people who live in the People's Republic of China. China is the country with the largest population of Mahayana Buddhists in the world

Buddhism population is between 1,500 million and 1,600 million including India, China, Japan, Korea, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Malaysia, Singapore, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia and some regions of Russia, etc. Hinduism population is between 1000 and 1,084 million, including India, South Asia, Bali, Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, and among the overseas Indian communities.

Buddhism and Hinduism are two religions or ways of thought that came from the same region and share similar terminology. The meanings of the terms can be different in some ways. Several Indian thinkers consider Buddhism as it existed in India to be a part of the larger Hindu tradition, which they identify as all those practices and religions native to the Indian subcontinent. In Hindu world is signed Lord Buddha as ninth avatar of Supreme God Vishnu and Hindu accept teachings of Buddha, but do not directly worship him. The Buddha is considered by many Hindus to be an avatar or reincarnation of Vishnu, an important Indian deity. However, according to the Buddha in the Tripitaka, Vishnu was a young deva newly arisen in the deva plane who paid him a visit and spoke verses in praise of the Buddha.

In Buddhism, Buddha is never mentioned as an avatar of Vishnu in Puranas "ancient times" documents and logically it is impossible to consider that as a fact. They claim Buddha is not as avatars of Vishnu, which is not true.

From the B.C 588, changes occurred in Indian religious life. The most influential of the religions was Buddhism in India and in the world since B.C 543. Then the Lord Buddha began India’s second religion, after the far older Hindu religion had become entrenched.

Concentration on the tip of the nose and abdomen and Metta meditation in Buddhism

There are two ways of doing Samatha ( สมถะ /サマタ瞑想) and Vipassana 
( วิปัสสนา /ヴィパッサナー瞑想 ) as watching at the abdomen and concentration on the tip of the nose.

These both methods are good, very effective and correct ways in Buddhism. One should choose a convenient time for meditation and practice with utmost regularity, reserving the same period each day for one's practice. Then, arousing the confidence that one is walking the correct road to นิพพาน / 涅槃/ Nibbana walked by all the enlightened ones of the past, one should proceed forth on the path of meditation and strive with diligent effort. Nibbana is the earliest and most common term used to describe the GOAL of the Buddhist path. The Theravada Buddhism emphasizes the cessation of suffering and liberation from samsara.

Even within the Vipassana tradition there are being different. There are meditation teachers who teach their students to follow the breath by watching the rise and fall of the abdomen. Others recommend focusing attention on the touch of the body against the cushion, or hand against hand, or the feeling of one leg against the other. The method we are explaining here, however, is considered the most traditional and is probably what Gotama Buddha taught his students. The Satipatthana Sutta, the Buddha's original discourse on mindfulness, specifically says that one must begin by focusing the attention on the breathing and then go on to note all other physical and mental phenomena which arise.

That difference is very subtle. These both methods are BEST, very effective, similarity, and correct ways based on the goal of the true Buddhist path in Buddhism. Furthermore, it is a very living process, an aspect of life that is in constant change. The breath moves in cycles - inhalation, exhalation, breathing in and breathing out. Thus it is a miniature model of life itself. The sensation of breath is subtle.

On the tip of the nose
Now, sati consistently watches only at the tip of the จมูก / nose.
Sati is a key term in Buddhist meditation. It means "recall, recollection, awareness, attention, mindfulness." In the tradition of Japanese, hana refers to the nose.

While inhaling or while exhaling, know it every time. This is called "watching the gate." There's a feeling as the breathing passes in or out; the rest of the way is left void or quiet. If you have firm awareness at the nose tip, the breathing becomes increasingly calm and quiet. Thus you can't feel movements other than at the nose tip. In the spaces when it's empty or quiet, when you can't feel anything, the mind doesn't run away to home or elsewhere. The ability to do this well is success in the "waiting in ambush at one point" level of preparation. Observe the movement of breath at the tip of your nose. This mindfulness meditation is very useful to calm the mind and soothe (calm and pacify) the emotions. Concentration on the tip of the nose is recommended in the Buddhism.

We sit, watching the air going in and out of our noses.
Now breathe naturally and easefully, keeping your awareness on the tip of your nose, feeling the breath as it flows in and out of your nostrils. (Some people become more aware of the half-inch or so at the tip of the nose, and others remain more aware of the nostrils. Whichever happens naturally is the best for you. So whenever almost Buddhist monks say “nose-tip” it applies equally to these three areas.) Do not follow the breath in and out of your body, but just be aware of the breath movement sensation at the tip of your nose.

Keeping your awareness on the tip of your nose, breathe naturally and calmly, easefully observing the sensation of the breath moving there throughout all your inhalations and exhalations.

Let the breath be as it will. If the breath is naturally long, let it be so. If it is short, let it be so. If the inhalations and exhalations are of unequal length, that is just fine. Let the breath be natural and unforced, and just observe and experience it.

Keep in mind that breath Meditation basically consists of being aware in a relaxed and easeful manner of your breath as it moves in and out at the tip of your nose.

Mahasi Sayadaws teaching…..
At the abdomen
The belly (ท้อง /abdomen) is considered as the location of the hara centre. Just behind and below your navel (belly) lies the hara, which is a point of consciousness that is considered as the center of your subtle body. By focus our attention on the hara centre, we can easily attain a meditative state of mind. As you meditate upon hara, you watching process starts slow down on its own. In the tradition of Japanese, hara refers to the abdomen (belly).

Try to keep your mind (but not your eyes) on the abdomen. You will thereby come to know the movements of rising and falling of it. If these movements are not clear to you in the beginning, then place both hands on the abdomen to feel these rising and falling movements. After a short time the upward movement of exhalation will become clear. Then make a mental note of rising for the upward movement, falling for the downward movement.

Your mental note of each movement must be made while it occurs. From this exercise you learn the actual manner of the upward and downward movements of the abdomen. You are not concerned with the form of the abdomen. What you actually perceive is the bodily sensation of pressure caused by the heaving movement of the abdomen. So do not dwell on the form of the abdomen but proceed with the exercise.

For the beginner it is a very effective method of developing the faculties of attention, concentration of mind and insight in contemplation. As practice progresses, the manner of the movements will be clearer. The ability to know each successive occurrence of the mental and physical processes at each of the six sense organs is acquired only when insight contemplation is fully developed.

Since you are only a beginner whose attentiveness and power of concentration are still weak, you may find it difficult to keep the mind on each successive rising movement and falling movement as it occurs. In view of this difficulty, you may be inclined to think, "I just don't know how to keep my mind on each of every movement." Then simply remember that this is a learning process. The rising and falling movements of the abdomen are always present and therefore there is no need to look for them. Actually it is easy for a beginner to keep his or her mind on these two simple movements.

Continue with this exercise in full awareness of the abdomen's rising and falling movements. Never verbally repeat the words, rising, falling, and do not think of rising and falling as words. Be aware only of the actual process of the rising and falling movements of the abdomen. Avoid deep or rapid breathing for the purpose of making the abdominal movements more distinct, because this procedure causes fatigue that interferes with the practice. Just be totally aware of the movements of rising and falling as they occur in the course of normal breathing.

If you simply think of something, mentally note, thinking. If you reflect, reflecting. If you intend to do something intending, note intending. When the mind wanders from the object of meditation which is the rising and falling of the abdomen, mentally note, wandering. Should you imagine you are going to a certain place, note going. When you arrive-arriving. When, in your thoughts, you meet a person, note meeting. If you envision or imagine a light or colour, be sure to note seeing. A mental vision must be noted on each occurrence of its appearance until it passes away. After its disappearance continue with Basic Exercise I, by being fully aware of each movement of the rising and falling abdomen. Proceed carefully, without slackening. If you intend to swallow saliva while thus engaged, make a mental note intending. While in the act of swallowing-swallowing. If you spit, spitting. Then return to the exercise of noting rising and falling.

Should an itching sensation be felt in any part of the body, keep the mind on that part and make a mental note, itching. Do this in a regulated manner, neither too fast nor too slow. When the itching sensation disappears in the course of full awareness, continue with the exercise of noticing the rising and falling of the abdomen.

Suppose you intend to bend the neck, note intending. In the act of bending, bending. When you intend to straighten the neck, intending. In the act of straightening the neck, straightening. The neck movements of bending and straightening must be done slowly. After mentally making a note of each of these actions, proceed in full awareness with noticing the movements of the rising and falling abdomen.

I want to say it again, the 'belly watching' form of Vipassana meditation involves focus our attention on the breathing process felt around the belly. When we breathe our belly moves up and down. This movement of belly is a continuous process. Just like breathing, this movement (of belly) also goes on continuously. And we can use this movement to attain a meditative state.

Chanmyay Sayadaws teaching…..
When you have done these preliminary stages then you have to focus your mind on your bodily and mental processes, be aware of any mental and physical processes as they really are. That is the beginning of Vipassana meditation. The principle of Vipassana meditation is to be aware of whatever arises in your body and mind as it really occurs. In other words, any activity of the body and mind must be very attentively observed as it really is. This is the principle of Vipassana meditation. So any mental process or physical process is the object of Vipassana meditation.

When you find any mental process or physical process on any part of your body and mind distinctively rising, then you must note it, you must observe it, you must be aware of it as it really is.
Any mental or physical phenomenon can be the object of insight meditation, Vipassana meditation. You have a variety of meditational objects in Vipassana meditation, not like Samatha meditation. In Samatha meditation you have to take only a single object to focus your mind. But in Vipassana meditation there are
many varieties of mental or physical processes as the object of meditation.

When you focus your mind on the abdomen you find a rising movement and falling movement. When you breathe in the abdomen rises; when you breathe out the abdomen falls. So rising movement and falling movement is the primary object of this insight meditation to begin with. But though the abdomen rises through the pressure of the air you breathe, this meditation is not a breathing meditation, not a respiratory meditation. Though the abdomen falls through the pressure of the breath which is going out, this is not a breathing meditation because there the Omniscient Buddha classified the wind or the air in six groups.

One group of the air or wind is vayo-dhatu. That means the wind which exists in the abdomen. This also must be focused, must be realised by a meditator and not identified with his self, his person or his being. The other aspect of wind or air is breathing, respiration.

Though the respiration is connected with the rise and fall of the abdomen, the rising movement/ falling movement is not breathing, not respiration. It's the wind or the air which expands and contracts in the abdomen. So contemplation of the abdomen's movement is not breathing meditation, not respiration meditation.

When you practise respiration meditation your mind has to focus at the nostrils or the top of the upper lips. You focus the mind there and note it and breathe in. When you breathe out you focus your mind on the nostrils or on the top of the upper lips, and note outward breathing and so on. So, when you focus your mind on the abdominal movement and concentrate on it then this contemplation is not contemplation breathing meditation.

Then what is it? This is the meditation of elements. Element here means the physical elements: wind or air. We have to focus our mind not only on the wind or air elements but also upon the other mental or physical elements too. Whatever is predominant, mental phenomena or physical phenomena must be observed as they are. So you have to focus your mind on the abdominal movement and notice or observe it: rising-falling, making mental note as rising-falling.

Sitting Meditation
When you sit in the wrong position you can't feel the pressure of the rising movement or falling movement very well, so you have to sit comfortably in the right position. You should not sit in the cross-legged position because if you cross one leg against another in a short time you feel pressure, a painful sensation of aching or numbness. You need not sit in a cross legged position. Your legs must be evenly placed side by side, the right leg inside and the left leg outside. Then you don't feel any pressure because the two legs are evenly placed side by side.

Then your body must be kept in an erect position. Your body must be straight. The neck and head also must be in a straight line with the body. But you must not stretch out your body. You must keep it straight erect, then close your eyes. The right hand must be put on the left one with the palm upward. But you may put both hands on both knees with the palms upward. Now relax yourself. Do not feel tense both physically and mentally. Relieve all your tensions, mental or physical tensions, and sit as comfortably as you can.

Rising and Falling Movement of the Abdomen

Then focus the mind on the abdominal movement and observe the outward movement and inward movement of the body, making a mental note: rising, falling. When the abdomen rises you note rising; when the abdomen falls you notice falling. You must not pay any attention to the form of the abdomen. What you should perceive is the pressure of the rising movement and the falling movement. Whenever the rising movement is distinct you should note it rising. When the falling is pronounced you note it falling. In the beginning of the practise you need to label such as rising, falling, sitting, touching and so on. You have to make a mental note.

In the beginning of the practise you need to label or make a mental note such as rising, falling, rising, and falling.

During your contemplation of the rise and fall of the abdomen your mind may go out. Then when the mind goes out you must now bring it back to the primary object, that's the rise and fall of the abdomen. As soon as you are aware that your mind is wandering you follow it and note it. Observe it as it is. Say, `wandering, wandering,` or `thinking, thinking,` or imagining, imagining,` and so on until that wandering mind has disappeared. Only after the wandering mind has disappeared do you return to the primary object, the rise and fall of the abdomen. Then note as usual rising, falling, rising, falling.

In the beginning of the practise, your mind is still with the rise and fall of the abdomen, the primary object, about say five or ten seconds. And then it goes out. Whenever you know that the mind is going out you should be aware of it going out and make a mental note, `we are going out,` or `thinking, thinking,` `imagining, imagining.` If you see any mental image then you note, seeing, seeing, seeing until that mental image has disappeared. Only after it has disappeared do you return to the primary object and note as usual, rising falling, rising falling.

In the beginning of the practise the rise and fall of the abdomen is not so pronounced, not so predominant to the beginner's mind. Then the meditator is not satisfied with the movement of the abdomen so he makes it vigorous, rapid or quick. You mustn't do that. You mustn't breathe quickly or vigorously or deeply so that you can feel it very distinctly. Because if you do that you get fatigued. You feel fatigue in a short time, then you can't concentrate on it. So breathing must be normal. When you put some mental effort in your noting of the rise and fall of the abdomen you can feel it to a certain extent and note rising falling, rising falling.

As you have meditated say about four or five days then the rise and fall of the abdominal movement will become clearer and clearer, more and more distinct to your mind. So in the beginning of this practise, not satisfied with your noting of the abdominal movement, you must not breathe in deeply or vigorously or quickly. Breathing must be normal. Note as much as it is distinct to your mind.

During your contemplation of the rising movement and falling movement of the abdomen you may hear any sound, a voice, a noise. And you should observe it, make a mental note, hearing- hearing- hearing- hearing about four or five times. After that you come to the primary object, the rise and fall of the abdomen, and note as usual.
Sometimes you may smell any scent while you are contemplating on the abdominal movement. Then you leave the abdominal movement alone and note: smelling- smelling- smelling. Only after that you come to return to the primary object and note as usual.

Sometimes you may feel hot or cold while you are engaged in the rising and fall of the abdomen. Then you leave the abdomen alone and focus your mind on the feeling of cold or the sensation of the hot, and observe it as it really is. Make a mental note: hot, hot or cold, cold. When the feeling of cold or hot subsides you return to the primary object, the rising and fall of the abdomen and note as usual rising falling, rising, falling.

When you have sat say about fifteen or twenty minutes you may feel pain or stiffening or itching on any part of your body. Then you must observe that painful or itching sensation as it really occurs. Make a mental note: pain- pain- pain- pain- pain. When you note the pain your noting should be energetic, precise. When the pain is noted superficially and lightly then you can't overcome it. Actually the pain doesn't become severe, but with the power of deep concentration the mind becomes so sensitive to the pain that it perceives it very well, so you think the pain becomes severe. So you have to continue to contemplate the pain as much as possible with utmost patience. That patience is the best quality of a meditator, to bear the pain and to overcome it. However severe the pain may be you must not give it up. You should concentrate on it as much as possible with the utmost patience.

So not only for the pain itself but also in other aspects of this meditation patience is the best quality of a yogi. You have to be patient with your mind; you have to be patience with your physical discomfort; you have to be patient with the disturbances coming from outside. When you are not patient with these things your concentration very often is broken, goes away. So you have to have the best quality of a meditator, that's patience.

Patience leads to Nibbana, or the cessation of all kinds of suffering. So patience is the best quality of a yogi who will be successful in this meditational practise.

Sometimes you can't bear the severity of the pain. Then you want to change your position so that you can relieve it. You must not change your position in a sitting, but there is an exception when a meditator can sit say an hour without changing position. After an hour's meditation if he wants to change his position he must not do that. He should get up and practise walking meditation because the changing of the position in a sitting makes your concentration break. So it's not good.

When you change your position very often this becomes habitual so that when your meditation experience is even at an advanced stage you want to change your position though you don't have any unbearable pain. Sometimes unconsciously you have changed your position. Only after you have changed position do you know, `Ah,
I have changed my position.` Then concentration breaks.

So those who can sit without changing position an hour should not change this position in a sitting even once. But for beginners if they are not able to sit when thirty minutes, half an hour, is up without changing position they can change once in a sitting, not twice.

Suppose the beginner starts meditation in the sitting position then after ten minutes of meditation feels a painful sensation and wants to change his position. Then he can change it because he cannot sit even an hour. So he should change his position, but this must be done mindfully. When you want to change you must note, wanting wanting. That's a mental process which must be observed: wanting, wanting, or wishing, wishing, intending, intending. Then you change your position, you stretch out your legs, and stretching, stretching, stretching. Then again you shift your body, then shifting- shifting- moving- moving.

When you settle it on again, then touching-touching- sitting-sitting. When you bend your legs, bending- bending- and so on. All actions and movements involved in changing the position you must be mindful of as they really are.

After you have changed position then you return to the primary object, the rise and fall of the abdomen, and note as well rising falling, rising falling. But after five or ten minutes meditation you may feel pain unbearable, then you may feel you want to change your position. You mustn't do that. Patiently observe the pain as much as possible as long as you can. When you feel it unbearable then get up and practise walking meditation. You may sit say about twenty minutes or thirty minutes, it doesn't matter. You may sit as long as you can with a change of position once - only once, not twice. After that you practise walking meditation.

As I told you this Vipassana meditation, insight meditation, is to put an end to all kinds of suffering through realisation of our body-mind processes and their true relation. That's why we have to observe whatever mental states, emotional states or physical activities become prominent to our mind. That's why we have to be mindful of our painful sensation. Make a mental note, 'pain, pain'. The same with the stiffening, itching or any physical discomfort or mental or emotional states which are arising very prominently.

Sometimes you may have two or more objects of meditation, that's two or more objects of physical mental processes which are arising at the same moment. Then you may get puzzled which object should be noted. You should not get puzzled about it. It is the most prominent object of physical or mental processes that you must be aware of.

Suppose when you observe the rise and fall of the abdomen you feel numbness on your leg. And also you feel an itching sensation in the back. And your mind is also thinking about something, about your walk or your travel. Then you have four objects of meditation. One is the rise and fall of the abdomen, the other is numbness, the third is the itching sensation in the back, and the fourth is a thought about your family. What should you do with these four objects that you should be mindful of?

You should note the most prominent object. When numbness on the leg is more distinct than the other three you should note, numb. You should observe it, make a mental note, numb numb, or numbness numbness and so on until it has subsided. After it has subsided you return to the primary object, the rise and fall of the abdomen.

But it may be the itching sensation which is more distinct than the abdominal movement. Then you should go to the itching sensation and note as usual, itching itching itching. Focus in your mind on the itching sensation attentively and precisely.

Of the four objects of meditation, if the thought about your family is more distinct than the other three then you should observe the thought, observe this mental state which must be realised by the meditator. Observing the thought, make a mental note, thinking, thinking, thinking, thinking. When you note the, thought that noting must be energetic, precise and somewhat quick, so that the mindfulness or the noting becomes more and more powerful than the process of thinking. When the noting mind becomes more powerful than the process of thinking, then it overwhelms the process of thinking and that process of thinking stops. After the thought has stopped or disappeared you return to the primary object, the rise and fall of the abdomen, and note it as usual.
In this way when you have two or more objects of a mental or physical process you must be aware of the most distinct or prominent object of meditation, making mental note as it is.

Clear Comprehension

Clear Comprehension is part of the first of the four foundations of mindfulness, the meditator must be aware of whatever arises within the body and mind as it really occurs. So while you are walking also you must be aware of the movement of the foot.
When you walk, first of all you must stand still at the starting point of the walk. Stand still and first make a mental note, standing- standing- standing, about ten times, perceiving the inner posture of standing. Not the form of the body but the erect posture for standing.

After that you walk, left step, right step. Then you note, left right, left right, being aware of the movement of the foot very precisely and attentively. Or you can note, stepping, stepping, stepping.
But your mind doesn't stay with the movement of the foot very long. It may stay with the movement of the foot say about one or two minutes, then the mind goes out, wanders about. But in the beginning of the practise you are not aware of the wandering

You think you are focusing your mind on the movement of the foot but actually the mind is going out still asleep. As soon as you know that the mind is wandering or thinking about something else then unconsciously you bring it back to the foot.

Then you have a chance to note the wandering mind because the mind has already stayed with the movement of the foot. Then you have to note left right, left right. Labeling or seeing is not the important thing. What is important is to note the movement of the foot, to perceive the movement of the foot, to be aware of the movement of the foot, but without labeling or mental note.

Your mind may not at first be able to focus on the movement of the foot very precisely. That's why we use labeling as an instrument to help focus our mind on the movement of the foot. But when you have practised walking meditation for say about half an hour, you may be able to note that the mind is wandering when it goes out. As soon as you know the mind is wandering you must stop walking and make a mental note, wandering, wandering, or thinking, thinking, imagining, imagining, as the case may be. After that you return to the movement of the foot and note, left right, left right.

When you are able to concentrate to a certain extent by being aware of the movement of the foot, make a mental note left and right, you should note two parts of the step: lifting parts and dropping parts. When you lift the foot note it, lifting. When you put it down note it, putting. In this way: lifting, putting, lifting and putting. Or lifting dropping, lifting- dropping. When you note two parts of a step you need not label left and right. Left and right must be dropped when you make a mental note, lifting dropping, lifting dropping. Slowly not quickly. Gradually you must make your step slower and slower so that you can easily note the movement of the foot very well.

When you are well able to note lifting dropping then you can increase to one more object. Three parts of a step must be noted: lifting part, pushing part, dropping part. When you lift the foot note lifting. When you push it forward note pushing. When you
drop it down you note dropping. In this way lifting, pushing, dropping; lifting pushing dropping.

If you find it difficult to perceive the movement of the foot because of labeling or making a mental note, then you should try without labeling or making a mental note. Just be aware of the movement of the foot: lifting movement, pushing forward movement, and dropping movement.
When you reach the other end of the walk you have to stand still and note your posture of standing, the posture of your body, standing standing about ten times. When you want to turn your body then note wanting wanting, then intending, intending, then turning turning, very slowly. The movement of turning must be noted very slowly. Then again when you face the direction you came, then you stand still and note the standing posture ten times. Then walk again, lifting pushing dropping, and lifting pushing dropping. And so on.

If you are able to walk an hour it's better, because in walking meditation the movement of the foot, the object of meditation is very distinct, very clear to your mind so you can easily observe it. You can easily be aware of it. But as the principle of Vipassana meditation goes on, any mental states, emotional states or physical activities must be observed as they are so, except sitting and walking.

There are many actions and movements you have to do in your daily life. Those daily activities also must be noted such as stretching of the arms and bending of the arms, raising the hand, putting down the hand, and sitting down and rising from the seat.

All the actions and movements you are doing must be observed as they really occur: while you are eating, while you are washing, while you are showering, while you are preparing your beds. There are many many activities involved in these actions.

These activities must be noted, you must be aware of them. To be able to note these activities you have to deliberately slow down your actions and movements.

Metta meditation

“Hate is not conquered by hate:
Hate is conquered by love. This is eternal law.
                                                                                           - Buddha-

"Do not dwell in the past; do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment."

Vihara means abiding and living. And so those who practice these are said to be abiding or living in the divine or noble way.

The Four Brahma Viharas are
1. Metta: (loving kindness displayed to all you meet)
2. Karuna: (compassion or mercy, the special kindness shown to those who suffer)
3. Mudita: (sympathetic joy, being happy for others, without a trace of envy)
4. Upekkha: (equanimity or levelness, the ability to accept others as they are)

These four are attitudes towards other beings. They are also favorable relationships. They can also be extended towards an immeasurable scope of beings and so are called immeasurable. These four are important in all schools of Buddhism.

 Once we have the ability to mercy to others, or mercy ourselves, we are on the way to once again exist in that reality of pure love. We all need mercy. We need to offer mercy to each other and be willing to receive it from each other. Metta can make you happy. Tender mercy can make you happy. Buddha's universal mercy is infinite and endless. Buddha taught us universal Truth.

One can also proceed on to the specified and unspecified

sending (or) spreading (or) spread throughout of METTA in the 10 directions.

·        May all beings be free from suffering
·        May all living things be free from suffering
·        May all creatures be free from suffering
·        May all individuals be free from suffering
·        May all personalities be free from suffering
·        May all females be free from suffering
·        May all males be free from suffering
·        May all deities be free from suffering
·        May all humans be free from suffering
·        May all unhappy states be free from suffering

Buddha was born BC 623. Buddha taught us how to practice Metta / mercy meditation and kindness to others since BC 588. Lord Buddha attained enlightenment and became Supreme Buddha at the age of 35 (BC 588). Buddhism is founded by Buddha in BC 588. Buddha was died (Parinirvana) at the age of 80 in BC 543. Lord Buddha taught the truth for 45 years until his final passing away into Nibbana (Parinirvana) on a full moon day in 543 BC.

True love (METTA) and MERCY are practice of meditation as loving kindness and friendliness taught by Buddha. Since BC 588 (2,602 years ago), it is an important component of the wisdom of Buddhist teachings and practices in their everyday use in life.

No love, no human
No mercy, no success
No mercy, no charity
No mercy, no humanity
No mercy, no goodness
No mercy, no heart
No mercy, no benevolence
No mercy, no glory









Once again exist in that reality of pure love. Mercy is a prime essential to everyone. Metta is a prime essential to everyone.

One must have true love (metta) and respect for one's own country, religion, literature, family, culture, nationality for all in the same way. They love and respect to their country, their religion, their literature, their family, their culture and their nationality.

Pure love (Metta) and forgiveness are most famous of Buddhism. Forgiving someone can be difficult. Why do we need to forgive others? How can we forgive a person? The Bible can provide us with answers, inspiration and direction. Then the teaching of Buddha can provide us with answers, inspiration and direction.

"Avoid all evils; do all good things; purify one's mind. These are the summary of the teachings of Buddha". Besides avoiding all evils and doing all that are good, we need to purify our thoughts. When our thoughts have been purified, then the mind is pure.

The purpose of learning and practicing Buddhism is to purify the human mind. If the mind of everyone in the family is pure, then our home is pure; if the mind of everyone in this society is pure, then our society is pure; if the mind of everyone in the country is pure, then our land is pure; if the entire human race in the world is pure.

According to the Buddha teachings, our thoughts determine who we are. If a man can control his mind he can find the way to Enlightenment, and all wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him”.

It is my opinion that all people should appreciate:

1. A language and another language
2. A nationality and another nationality,
3. A culture and another culture,
4. A religious doctrine and another religious doctrine,
5. A family and another family,
6. A community and another community,
7. A political party and another political party,
8. Between one country and another country,
9. An ethnic group and another ethnic group,
10. Between parents and children
11. Between teacher and pupils,
12. Between youth and adults,
13. Between government and people,
14. Between employers and employees,
15. Between husband and wife,
16. Between seller and buyer,
17. Between owner and worker,
18. Between brother and sister,
19.  Between senior and junior,
20.  Between rich man and poor man,
21.  Between eastern world and western world,
22. Between western culture and eastern culture,
23. White persons and black person,
24. Yellow persons and brown persons,
25. Tall man and short man,
26. Patient persons and short tempered persons,
27. High class persons and low class persons,
28. Healthy persons and sickly persons,
29. Kind person and inhumane person,
30. Polite man and rude man,
31. Male and female,
32. Optimists and pessimists,
33. Beautiful persons and ugly persons,
34. Good moral behavior and bad moral behavior,
35. Good man and wicked man,
36. Educated person and uneducated person,
37. Right understanding and wrong understanding,
38. Right thinking and wrong thinking as it is in the World we found on sundry ways and diversity.

There are various religions as Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam as in the World. One must have love and respect for one's own country, religion, literature, family, culture, nationality for all in the same way. They love and respect to their country, their religion, their literature, their family, their culture and their nationality.

There are different kinds of countries, races, thoughts, religions, such as Chinese/China, Indian/India, Burmese/Burma, Thai/Thailand, English/England, Japanese/ Japan, American/U.S.A and Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim. These factors were very important of the World and everyone. It must not be neglected. It must not be insulted. We should show respect to other. The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.

We need to demonstrate respect for each other and for relationships, not for power and control. We need to win other’s respect, not try to demand or force it. By force respect might bring compliance but it doesn’t build true respect for each other. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

All human beings are equal in dignity and rights. We should appreciate others as much as we can. But the essential factor is not races, religions, positions, etc.

Mental attitude, honesty, diligence, character, unity, patience, justice, optimism, forgiveness, love, mercy, peace, open-minded, sacrifice, humility, moral ethics are more important above all.

One must be able to one self analyze. Each and every one of us should follow and live according to the teachings of one's own religion. The one who does not respect another's culture and religion does not respect his own. The one who respects another's culture and religion respects his own.

All the teachings concerning culture, thoughts, opinion, beliefs and practices are valuable in their own ways. The important factor is that the follower of the concerned religion must follow the teachings sincerely. Although I, myself a
Theravada Buddhist, I obey the teachings of Lord Buddha, but I appreciate the teachings of other religions and the appreciation of other nationalities and their culture are all noble and valuable in their own way.

There cannot be 100% similarities among religions, nationalities, any opinions, cultures, philosophies, skin hues, mental attitudes, sex, language, political, social origin, property, visions of people in the World. There would be more beneficence from performance of seeing with love and sympathetic mind (with optimistic view) for a particular thing rather than blaming or extreme criticize (with a pessimistic view) in contrast to others. Look on the bright side,  please.

Now love to these should be kind, tender, and affectionate, reciprocal and mutual; such should love one another; there should be no love wanting on either side; and it ought to be universal, and reach to all the saints, though of different gifts, light, knowledge and experience, or whether high or low, rich or poor; and should show itself by bearing one another's burdens, bearing with, and forbearing each other, forgiving one another, and by edifying one another in their most holy faith, and praying with, and for one another.

We need to offer forgiveness if we do harm. We need to take that most challenging step to begin the process of recovery, the process of reconciliation. When we offer forgiveness the person who has been hurt has the opportunity to begin the process of returning to love. We need to accept the offer as soon as possible and work towards repairing the relationship. We often need to forgive ourselves. This can be quite difficult. We need to learn to accept our own forgiveness and move on, just as we do when accepting forgiveness from others or when we offer others forgiveness.
The mind is almost always impure, and it almost always brings in bad thoughts. Even when it is not doing this, the mind is still a victim to doubt, jealousy, hypocrisy, fear and other unholy qualities. Meditation can be said to purify the mind by making it easier to develop generosity and compassion, and then to finally acquire wisdom. Meditation can be said to be the highest form of Buddhist practice as the Buddha himself attained Enlightenment through meditation.

The English culture is best for the English, while the Burmese culture is good for the Burmese. The Thai culture is best for the Thai, while the Japanese culture is good for the Japanese. The Indian culture is also best for the Indian people, while the Chinese culture is good for the Chinese people. Likewise, Christians must obey the teachings of the Bible, Buddhists must obey the teaching of teaching of Buddha, Hindus must obey the teachings of the Hinduism and Muslims must obey the teachings of Quran.

Every cloud has a silver lining means that you should never feel hopeless because difficult times always lead to better days. Difficult times are like dark clouds that pass overhead and block the sun. When we look more closely at the edges of every cloud we can see the sun shining there like a silver lining. Every cloud has a silver lining means that the sun shining at the edges of every cloud reminds us that every difficult situation has a bright side. Look on the bright side, please.

May there be happiness and peace for those who are living in the World.
May there be love, respect, forgiveness, humility, for each of everyone.
May we be free from mental suffering!
May we be free from physical suffering!
May all beings be Well & Secure!
May all of you rightly understand the techniques of above meditation and practise intensively during this retreat and achieve your GOAL.


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